2019考研英语 历年翻译真题之2012英语一


Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlinedsegments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWERSHEET 2. (10 points)

Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles hascharacterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest forcommonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolutioneach bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory framework.

(46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to itsextreme, and seeks a theory of everything-a single generative equation for allwe see.It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be asimplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail,nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal.

This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the socialsciences too. (47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humansshare common origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversitycould also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewilderingvariety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexualselection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customsand even history are governed by universal features. (48)To filter out what isunique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex culturalbehavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.

That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traitspublished online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the Universityof Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the lightof two previous attempts to find universality in language.

The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, whosuggested that humans are born with an innate language-acquisition capacity thatdictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient tounfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children canlearn it so quickly.

(49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach touniversality identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by manylanguage which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitiveconstraints

Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four familytrees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky’sgrammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of thefamily tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universalitypredicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-orderrelations. Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggestingthat the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and not governed byuniversals.


46. 【解析】本句结构比较简单,它是一个简单句,句子主干结构是one approach takes…andseeks…。破折号后面的部分是对前面提到的理论的进一步解释。

1)take …to extreme…把……发挥到极致,把。。。推至极限

2)theory of everything万有理论。或者也可以一个短语翻译出来”适用于任何事物的理论”

3)generative equation生成等式、生成方程。




1)for 引导的句子表原因与前句是并列关系,for原因并列句中又包含一个if引导的条件状语从句

2)”it seems reasonable to supposethat”对这句话的翻译可以翻译成一个长句,也可以分开翻译成”那么假设文化差异也能够追溯到更有限的源头, 这种假设看上去便是合理的了。”

3)对于 “cultural diversit”的理解,我们容易受到之前在备考中经常遇到的”culturaldiversity”的影响,直接翻译成”文化多样性”,但在本文,前文很多次提到了共性,所以这里我们翻译为”文化差异”更合适。


48. 【解析】这句话结构主要在于对三个”what”从句的理解。本题是三个what引导的从句第一个是what引导的宾语从句,做filter out的宾语。第二个what是介词from的宾语,from 是固定搭配中的介词filter out A fromB。第三个what是understand的宾语,和how并列

1)句子主干可以看做:To filter out A from B enables us to understand C and D

A指的是”what is contingent and unique”

B指的是”what is shared” how complex cultural behaviour arose”

C指的是”how complex cultural behaviour arose”

D指的是”what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms”




1)这里的the second与上文的”The most famous of these efforts was initiated by NoamChomsky,”,所里这里应该翻译成”第二种理论”所以这句话需要根据上下文和逻辑解释清楚。而不能单纯的翻译成第二。。。



50. 【解析】这句话的结构比较简单,复杂的是其中大量的术语和不熟悉的词汇。对于这些词汇我们根据直译即可。

本句结构:Chomsky’s grammar should show…, whereas Greenbergian….



3)co-dependencies 这个词需要根据上下词义加之词根词缀来猜测出词义,因为下文指出是两者关系,所以可以翻译为”共存性”



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